December 5, 2023

THEORITICAL LINGUISTICS HAS, since time unknown, established that: “two languages whose speakers are at odds have little chance of borrowing”. Logically, you and I may agree in the meantime, shall we?
FOR BETTER ANALYSES however, let’s try the ‘strength(s)’ of this in our own Philippine setting.
IN THE LOW-LYING lands, the conquering Spanish were able to penetrate, dominate, and dissiminate their Castillian language or what Filipinos have been referring to as: Kastila, with success – albeit in other local tongues, with very great success!
WITNESS THE CASTILLIAN ‘success’ in Cebuano, Ilonggo, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Iluko, and yes(!) – in Tagalog!
HOW MANY PER cent, would you estimate come to your notice each time you hear them spoken? But
EVEN MORE SURPRISED you shall be when you’ll hear Chabacano! You wanna try? Choose
IN TRES MARTIRES, Cavite; in Ermita, Manila (Ermitaño Chabacano spoken by more than a thousand families, 1992 Estimates); and yes(!) in Zamboanga – where they celebrate the yearly(?) fiesta called: Baile! (or Baila!) – which means either way – D.a.n.c.e!
AND LINGUISTICS HAVE a ready Explanation for these: because of ‘Spanish rule’ in these Lowlands – was it 333 years.. our History books say(?), the borrowing was ‘intense’.
THE RESULTS – LAS resultas: we have those ‘daughter-languages’ they call creoles like: the Chabacano spoken in Cavite City, Tres Martires, Ternate, Ermita, Zamboanga and where else?
FOLLOWED BY.. OTHER Philippine tongues – with ‘heavy’, or ‘lighter’, or ‘deeper’, etc., borrowings – or loaned words from dear, old Kastila, to wit, aside from those mentioned Supra:
BICOLANO, SAMARNON, LEYTEÑO, Aklanon, Romblomanon.. but not necessarily: Zambal, Bolinao, and Isinay, some local historians point out. So,
WHAT ABOUT THOSE languages – clearly demarcated as with ‘less exposure’ to Castillian or Kastila e.g. the Aeta (or Agta, or Ita) languages, the Lumnad languages, and the languages of the Ygollotes – now, the Cordillerans, so-called? Lesser borrowings?
LET’S EXPLORE USING the languages in our own midsts. Our first premise: the language of Commerce and general Communication for most, or all, of the Cordilleran languages has always been Iluko.
THIS FACT IS evident in the history, narrations, go-between accounts, old documents, etc., ‘in these Heights’. So that
IF WE FIND – or recognize(!) a Spanish word or expression in Today’s spoken languages of the Cordis, this must have been loaned or borrowed form Iluko; if not directly from Spanish.
[THE BOOKS SAY: the Spanish stayed ‘longest’ in Benguet i.e. dominated by about 52 punitive expeditions; in Bontoc and in Ifugao, some 25 years or so; in the ‘other interior’ parts: less than those numbers – as sometimes these were unreached because the Spanish had to ‘go back’ to the Lowlands for re-supply]. So,
DEFINITELY, THERE WERE ‘direct borrowings’ too from Spanish rule or presence – no matter how ‘short’ was their stay or domination here.
ITOGON (BENGUET, CAR) for example records in their local History, four Capitan del pueblo Ytogon, nl. Capitanes Codeng, Shomingkis, Guirey, and Maingpes, b.e.f.o.r.e the first mayor or Municipal ‘President’ – Jose Smith Fianza, in 1901, the beginning thereat of the local government under American rule. Now, to a bit of our ‘Hispanized’ specimens
THE EXPRESSION (EXPR) Salaki! – used when driving a dog “Out! (you go)!” is one case regularly or widely-used by both Northern Ilokanos and Kankana-eys.
MY SOURCES SAY: ‘it is derived from the Spanish – Salir de aqui! =int “Out of here!”
THE NABALOIS ON this score say: Shoo!; but also.. Sarii! Harken ye folks: is not this Sarii! a shorter (or shortened) form of Salaki!? Thus ‘derived’ from Spanish too, v I a Iluko?
OR TAKE HOW we count. The Ilokano will start with: maysa, dua, tallo (i.e. “one, two, three”); the Pangasinense with: sakei, dua ra, talo ra; and the Nabaloi with: sahei, showa teddo; but they will continue, respectively, with (after 10): onse (Sp. once), dose (doce), trese (trece), et cetera. Meaning.. ‘Hispanized’.. or, are they rather.. ‘localized’? And our final example for today: “…Maaring may maseselang tema, lenguahe, karahasan, sexual, horror, o droga na di angkop sa mga bata.”
RENDERED IN NABALOI: “…Mebdin ja gware era y dagdagod ja tema, essel, khulo, seksual, tahtahkot ono droga ja eg maibagay sonni, aanak.” How ‘Hispanized’ is the Tagalog ‘original’ version. And the Nabaloi Translation? Nanong say po nyo?