June 9, 2023

THEY SAY WHEN a Danish – and/or Swedish, speaks with another .. their own languages respective, the listening Norwegian understands what are being said. Some truths to it I must say ; I did studies in those three languages.
IN THE LOCAL scene, they say: when two Pangasinenses are speaking and an Ibaloi is listening, the Ibaloi could understand almost everything being said. [note: I’d say rather: even much easier for the listening speaker of Kalanguya]. However
WHETHER WITH MY Pangasinan friends or students, I have yet to hear a non-jesting claim, that: vice-versa, when two Ibalois (or Kalanguyas) are speaking, the listening Pangasinense can understand, or follow, the flow of the conversation.
TRULY, AND SO I’m always held in wonderment. Ibaloi or otherwise, if you have the satisfactory answers, I await thy explanation.
IN A YET more local, smaller scene or area, survives a former (?) language, identified as Bingaan or Biningaan often referred to (or ‘lined-up with’.?) : Inibaloi or Nabaloi.
THE SITIOS THAT respond to its identification include: Binga Marian, Binga Riverside, Bagajao, Boneco, Guisset, Bingo (all in Barangay Tinongdan, Itogon) ;
Sitios Banao, Abat, and Adonot, in Barangay Ambuklao, Bokod; and Sitios Apalan, Camesong, and Pedday, in Barangay Loakan, Itogon. note : the ‘non-inclusion’ here of other possible areas where Bingaan is heard spoken is due to lesser gathered data-evidences in those Sitios or Puroks e.g. in Tower 5, Binaljan, Camaya, and Baloy Checkpoint – all in the territory of Barangay Tinongdan, Itogon. This holds true for other adjoining settlements of the above cited, identified Bingaan speech locations. But
WHY IS BINGAAN today not anymore as noticed a distinct tongue; or maybe in fact: being ‘swallowed-up’ by the kind of Nabaloi prevailing in the identified areas? Our ready and foremost answer is: from all Directions, the Bingaan areas cited Supra are ‘surrounded’ by ‘purer’ Nabalois or Nabaloi-speaking communities; notably of the Ikulos genus which, in turn, have genetic commonalities with the earlier-settling Iowaks and Adaguts (?).
THE RESULT: AS a Linguist or researcher for Bingaan, I have to deduce often . . if the Bingaan word or expression is now interspersed or ‘embedded’ with an original Ibaloi, Iowak, Adagut, or ‘mix – mixed’– nandalaok sentence! For illustrations following, we present discourse-samples to you – where the Bingaan words etched in the sentences are plucked out for analyses, and juxtaposed to their respective and corresponding Nabaloi equivalents or near˗meanings. Note well that: in every sentence, there are two or more Bingaan words therein insulated and needing verification for some ‘Native’ Nabaloi Speaker.
FOR LEGENDS, LET Bingsa stand for “Bingaan speaker assumed”; NNS for: ‘Native’ Nabaloi Speaker; and SNF for: “Standard (or ubm i.e. “understood – by – most) Nabaloi Form.
THE BRIEF DISCOURSE is about the Soursop or Nabaloi Bayubana̶ which is abundantly grown in Banao, Ambuklao, Bokod; in Binga, Tinongdan, Itogon; as well as in other Bingaan – speaking areas. (N.B. Soursop or Bayubana is scientifically identified as: Annona Muricata, family Annonaceae). Now, the Discourse.
DISCOURSE: BAYUBANA. CHARACTERS: Bingsa, Bingaan speaker female and NNS = int Nabaloi ‘Native’ Speaker. All underscored words/expressions are our foci of interest. Bingsa : PAN ON-IM da eya takoree, eya e inseng-at kon xanum. (Transl : “See kindly the kettle, there’s water in it I’m boiling” ). NNS nods, smiling.
Bingsa: NAK KHA nen on-an ima in-essek kon alimondo shima oomma, tep immesi kono da era .. kowan nen Baksai. Kinosngel ko reshan nonta kahshemman shi markit. (Transl: ‘I’m goin’ awhile to see the soursop I’ve planted at the (swidden) farm because they’re growing . . said Baksai. I met her CONF the day – before – yesterday at the market place, that’s why”).
NNS : OWEN AH. Singa nantotoptop eraja Bayubana . . alimunsho . . (Transl: “Yes, indeed EXPR. Seems like. . [looking around and further a bit] closely grown are the soursops . .”).
Bingsa: WEN EH . . eraka mengajangkajang . . pandalabsan xa pay e tagbow (Transl : EXPR. They’re growing straight up . . even passing over-height the rooftops!”)
NNS: NGANTOI, TEP . . mamapteng shan e boh-dai shiyai . . isunga mabnges e tanetanem . . mulamula.” (Transl : “why , because . . the soil is good here. That’s why plants here easily grow”). END of Discourse.
BRIEF ANALYSES. OUR foci (words/expressions) of Interest in paragraphs 1 and 2, are the following (note : enclosed in parenthesis are the equivalent (≡) foci, that the other Nabaloi speakers may use, in place):
PAN ON-IM (PANASASMO); takoree (baterol); inseng-at (insaang);
ON-AN (ASSEN); IN-ESSEK (in-mula); alimondo (bayubana/alimunsho)’ oomma (omma); immesi (binmengis); kinosngel (inapsul/inaspul); kahshemman (dones, madtes, etc., i.e. Monday, Tuesday, etc., is specified); shi markit palengke/malkaro/dakuan). For, paragraph 3, now, NNS speaking :
NANTOTOPTOP (≡ NANSASELPIT/ NASNID/ Nan aaskhang); Bayubana (Alimondo/Alimunsho). Then, paragraph 4, Bingsa – speaking again
MENGAJANGKAJANG (≡MEMASIG NI kayang) ; Tagbow (Atep/Bubungan). Finally. Paragraph 5, NNS speaking.
NGANTOI (≡NAGU); MAMAPTENG (sisikhed); bohdai (shaddin); mabnges (mahsi); tanetanem mulamula (tanem tan mula era).
WHEW! SO WHAT do we observe as ‘evident’? This is it : per Discourse – or paragraph, there are two or more foci of interest – especially words, phrases, expressions, et cetera.
WAS BINGAAN A language ̶different or independent from Nabaloi before? The surviving ‘foci’ can not just be taken ‘for-granted’ . . or we may be losing some seemingly insignificant data but sine quanonly vital to our history as a nation. Ayo, ayo, ino.